Improve Tails Installer robustness for 2.6
This ticket is about the iteration aimed at 2.6 of the improvements I’ve been working on as part of #10720 (closed). The goal is to get the installer robustness & debugging improvements produced there into 2.6, so that they benefit human users even though they might not be good enough to mark the tests as non-fragile on Jenkins yet (and close #10720 (closed)).
Feature Branch: bugfix/11590-installer-robustness, installer:bugfix/10720-installer-freezes-on-jenkins
Parent Task: #10988 (closed)