Commit 919e5ea2 authored by sajolida's avatar sajolida
Browse files

Stop talking about "Tails device" (#9965)

We used this terminology as a shortcut when we were supporting both USB
sticks and SD cards but now it's almost always superfluous, so let's
talk explicitly about USB stick as much as possible.
parent f42c1e09
...@@ -28,10 +28,10 @@ system, but: ...@@ -28,10 +28,10 @@ system, but:
* Tails should be installed from a trusted system. Otherwise it might * Tails should be installed from a trusted system. Otherwise it might
be corrupted during installation. be corrupted during installation.
* Plugging your Tails device in a * Plugging your Tails USB stick in a
compromised operating system might corrupt your Tails installation, compromised operating system might corrupt your Tails installation,
and destroy the protection that Tails provides. Only use your and destroy the protection that Tails provides. Only use your
Tails device to start Tails. Tails USB stick to start Tails.
See the [[corresponding FAQ|support/faq#compromised_system]]. See the [[corresponding FAQ|support/faq#compromised_system]].
......
...@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ Tails comes with utilities for LUKS, a standard for disk-encryption under Linux. ...@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ Tails comes with utilities for LUKS, a standard for disk-encryption under Linux.
<div class="tip"> <div class="tip">
<p>To store encrypted files on a Tails device, it is recommended to create a <p>To store encrypted files on a Tails USB stick, it is recommended to create a
[[persistent volume|first_steps/persistence]] instead.</p> [[persistent volume|first_steps/persistence]] instead.</p>
</div> </div>
......
...@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ ...@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
- [[!traillink Create_&_configure_the_persistent_volume|first_steps/persistence/configure]] - [[!traillink Create_&_configure_the_persistent_volume|first_steps/persistence/configure]]
- [[!traillink Enable_&_use_the_persistent_volume|first_steps/persistence/use]] - [[!traillink Enable_&_use_the_persistent_volume|first_steps/persistence/use]]
- [[!traillink Change_the_passphrase_of_the_persistent_volume|first_steps/persistence/change_passphrase]] - [[!traillink Change_the_passphrase_of_the_persistent_volume|first_steps/persistence/change_passphrase]]
- [[!traillink Manually_copy_your_persistent_data_to_a_new_device|first_steps/persistence/copy]] - [[!traillink Manually_copy_your_persistent_data_to_a_new_USB_stick|first_steps/persistence/copy]]
- [[!traillink Check_the_file_system_of_the_persistent_volume|first_steps/persistence/check_file_system]] - [[!traillink Check_the_file_system_of_the_persistent_volume|first_steps/persistence/check_file_system]]
- [[!traillink Delete_the_persistent_volume|first_steps/persistence/delete]] - [[!traillink Delete_the_persistent_volume|first_steps/persistence/delete]]
- [[!traillink Report_an_error|first_steps/bug_reporting]] - [[!traillink Report_an_error|first_steps/bug_reporting]]
......
[[!meta title="Encrypted persistence"]] [[!meta title="Encrypted persistence"]]
If you start Tails from a USB stick, you can create a If you start Tails from a USB stick, you can create a
persistent volume in the free space left on the device by <span persistent volume in the free space left on the USB stick by <span
class="application">Tails Installer</span>. The files in the persistent class="application">Tails Installer</span>. The files in the persistent
volume are saved encrypted and remain available across separate working sessions. volume are saved encrypted and remain available across separate working sessions.
...@@ -35,6 +35,6 @@ How to use the persistent volume ...@@ -35,6 +35,6 @@ How to use the persistent volume
- [[Create & configure the persistent volume|first_steps/persistence/configure]] - [[Create & configure the persistent volume|first_steps/persistence/configure]]
- [[Enable & use the persistent volume|first_steps/persistence/use]] - [[Enable & use the persistent volume|first_steps/persistence/use]]
- [[Change the passphrase of the persistent volume|first_steps/persistence/change_passphrase]] - [[Change the passphrase of the persistent volume|first_steps/persistence/change_passphrase]]
- [[Manually copy your persistent data to a new device|first_steps/persistence/copy]] - [[Manually copy your persistent data to a new USB stick|first_steps/persistence/copy]]
- [[Check the file system of the persistent volume|first_steps/persistence/check_file_system]] - [[Check the file system of the persistent volume|first_steps/persistence/check_file_system]]
- [[Delete the persistent volume|first_steps/persistence/delete]] - [[Delete the persistent volume|first_steps/persistence/delete]]
[[!meta title="Manually copying your persistent data to a new device"]] [[!meta title="Manually copying your persistent data to a new USB stick"]]
These instructions explain how to manually copy your persistent data to These instructions explain how to manually copy your persistent data to
a new device. Follow them if you have good reasons to think that your a new USB stick. Follow them if you have good reasons to think that your
persistence settings are corrupted or if you want to be extra careful. persistence settings are corrupted or if you want to be extra careful.
Create a new device Create a new USB stick
=================== ======================
1. Install the latest Tails onto a new device using the usual 1. Install the latest Tails onto a new USB stick using the usual
[[installing instructions|install]]. Do not use the Tails device [[installing instructions|install]]. Do not use the Tails USB stick
that might be corrupted in the process of installing the new one. that might be corrupted in the process of installing the new one.
1. [[Create a persistent volume|configure]] on this new device. We 1. [[Create a persistent volume|configure]] on this new USB stick. We
advise you to use a different passphrase to protect this new advise you to use a different passphrase to protect this new
persistent volume. persistent volume.
1. Enable again on this new device the persistence features of your 1. Enable again on this new USB stick the persistence features of your
choice. choice.
1. Restart on the new device, enable persistence, and [[set up an administration password|startup_options/administration_password]]. 1. Restart on the new USB stick, enable persistence, and [[set up an administration password|startup_options/administration_password]].
Rescue your files from the old Tails device Rescue your files from the old Tails USB stick
=========================================== ==============================================
Mount the old persistent volume Mount the old persistent volume
------------------------------- -------------------------------
1. Plug in the old Tails device from which you want to rescue your data. 1. Plug in the old Tails USB stick from which you want to rescue your data.
1. Choose 1. Choose
<span class="menuchoice"> <span class="menuchoice">
...@@ -36,8 +36,8 @@ Mount the old persistent volume ...@@ -36,8 +36,8 @@ Mount the old persistent volume
</span> </span>
to open <span class="application">GNOME Disks</span>. to open <span class="application">GNOME Disks</span>.
1. In the left pane, click on the device corresponding to the old Tails 1. In the left pane, click on the USB stick corresponding to the old Tails
device. USB stick.
1. In the right pane, click on the partition labeled as 1. In the right pane, click on the partition labeled as
<span class="guilabel">LUKS</span>. The <span class="guilabel">LUKS</span>. The
......
...@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ ...@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@
This can be useful in order to delete all the files saved to the persistent This can be useful in order to delete all the files saved to the persistent
volume in a single operation. You can later create a new persistent volume on volume in a single operation. You can later create a new persistent volume on
the same device without having to reinstall Tails. the same USB stick without having to reinstall Tails.
Securely delete the persistent volume Securely delete the persistent volume
------------------------------------- -------------------------------------
...@@ -25,17 +25,17 @@ Securely delete the persistent volume ...@@ -25,17 +25,17 @@ Securely delete the persistent volume
<strong>The previous technique might not prevent an attacker from recovering the files in the <strong>The previous technique might not prevent an attacker from recovering the files in the
old persistent volume using [[data old persistent volume using [[data
recovery techniques|encryption_and_privacy/secure_deletion#why]].</strong> recovery techniques|encryption_and_privacy/secure_deletion#why]].</strong>
To securely delete the persistent volume, start Tails from another media, and do the following To securely delete the persistent volume, start Tails from another USB stick or DVD, and do the following
operations on the device that you want to delete securely: operations on the USB stick that you want to delete securely:
<ol> <ol>
<li>[[Format the device and create a single encrypted partition|encryption_and_privacy/encrypted_volumes]] <li>[[Format the USB stick and create a single encrypted partition|encryption_and_privacy/encrypted_volumes]]
on the whole device. This step deletes both Tails and the persistent volume.</li> on the whole USB stick. This step deletes both Tails and the persistent volume.</li>
<li>[[Securely clean all the available disk <li>[[Securely clean all the available disk
space|encryption_and_privacy/secure_deletion#clean_disk_space]] on this new encrypted space|encryption_and_privacy/secure_deletion#clean_disk_space]] on this new encrypted
partition.</li> partition.</li>
<li>[[Reinstall Tails|install]] on the device.</li> <li>[[Reinstall Tails|install]] on the USB stick.</li>
<li>Start Tails from the device and [[create a new persistent <li>Start Tails from the USB stick and [[create a new persistent
volume|persistence/configure]].</li> volume|persistence/configure]].</li>
</ol> </ol>
......
...@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ error|doc/first_steps/bug_reporting]]. ...@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ error|doc/first_steps/bug_reporting]].
To recover the data from your persistent volume, follow the instructions to To recover the data from your persistent volume, follow the instructions to
[[manually copy your persistent data to a new [[manually copy your persistent data to a new
device|copy]]. USB stick|copy]].
For more technical details about the security of the persistent volume, For more technical details about the security of the persistent volume,
read our [[design document|contribute/design/persistence#security]]. read our [[design document|contribute/design/persistence#security]].
...@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ Storing sensitive documents ...@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ Storing sensitive documents
=========================== ===========================
**The persistent volume is not hidden.** An attacker in possession of **The persistent volume is not hidden.** An attacker in possession of
the device can know that there is a persistent volume on it. Take into consideration your USB stick can know that there is a persistent volume on it. Take into consideration
that you can be forced or tricked to give out its passphrase. that you can be forced or tricked to give out its passphrase.
Read also our instructions to [[securely delete the persistent volume|delete]]. Read also our instructions to [[securely delete the persistent volume|delete]].
......
To uninstall Tails from a USB stick, and use it for something else, you have to To uninstall Tails from a USB stick, and use it for something else, you have to
reset it. reset it.
**The content of the device will be lost in the operation,** but an attacker **The content of the USB stick will be lost in the operation,** but an attacker
might still be able to tell that Tails was installed on that device using might still be able to tell that Tails was installed on that USB stick using
[[data recovery techniques|encryption_and_privacy/secure_deletion]] unless you [[data recovery techniques|encryption_and_privacy/secure_deletion]] unless you
[[securely clean all the available disk space|encryption_and_privacy/secure_deletion#usb_and_ssd]] [[securely clean all the available disk space|encryption_and_privacy/secure_deletion#usb_and_ssd]]
afterwards. afterwards.
...@@ -35,9 +35,9 @@ point you are not sure about which device to choose, stop proceeding. ...@@ -35,9 +35,9 @@ point you are not sure about which device to choose, stop proceeding.
corresponds to the USB stick that you plugged in. Click on it. corresponds to the USB stick that you plugged in. Click on it.
1. In the right pane of the window, verify that the device corresponds 1. In the right pane of the window, verify that the device corresponds
to the device that you want to reset, its brand, its size, etc. to the USB stick that you want to reset, its brand, its size, etc.
1. To reset the device, click on the <span class="guimenu">[[!img lib/open-menu.png alt="Menu" class=symbolic link=no]]</span> button 1. To reset the USB stick, click on the <span class="guimenu">[[!img lib/open-menu.png alt="Menu" class=symbolic link=no]]</span> button
in the titlebar and choose <span class="guilabel">Format Disk…</span>. in the titlebar and choose <span class="guilabel">Format Disk…</span>.
1. In the <span class="guilabel">Format Disk</span> dialog: 1. In the <span class="guilabel">Format Disk</span> dialog:
...@@ -55,15 +55,15 @@ point you are not sure about which device to choose, stop proceeding. ...@@ -55,15 +55,15 @@ point you are not sure about which device to choose, stop proceeding.
1. In the confirmation dialog, click on the <span class="button">Format</span> 1. In the confirmation dialog, click on the <span class="button">Format</span>
button to confirm. button to confirm.
1. To make sure that all the changes are written to the device, click on the 1. To make sure that all the changes are written to the USB stick, click on the
<span class="guimenu">[[!img lib/media-eject.png alt="Eject" class=symbolic link=no]]</span> <span class="guimenu">[[!img lib/media-eject.png alt="Eject" class=symbolic link=no]]</span>
button in the titlebar. button in the titlebar.
Resetting a Tails device from itself Resetting a Tails USB stick from itself
==================================== =======================================
If Tails is your only Linux system, you can generally reset a Tails USB stick If Tails is your only Linux system, you can generally reset a Tails USB stick
directly from that device while running Tails. directly from that USB stick while running Tails.
1. When starting Tails, add the <span class="command">toram</span> boot 1. When starting Tails, add the <span class="command">toram</span> boot
option in the <span class="application">Boot Loader Menu</span>. For detailed option in the <span class="application">Boot Loader Menu</span>. For detailed
...@@ -75,4 +75,4 @@ directly from that device while running Tails. ...@@ -75,4 +75,4 @@ directly from that device while running Tails.
**If the system fails to start**, that means that the computer does not have **If the system fails to start**, that means that the computer does not have
enough memory for this operation mode. Try with another computer, or find enough memory for this operation mode. Try with another computer, or find
another Linux system, such as another Tails device, to do the reset from. another Linux system, such as another Tails USB stick, to do the reset from.
...@@ -22,9 +22,9 @@ point you are not sure about which device to choose, stop proceeding. ...@@ -22,9 +22,9 @@ point you are not sure about which device to choose, stop proceeding.
corresponds to the USB stick that you plugged in. Click on it. corresponds to the USB stick that you plugged in. Click on it.
4. In the list of storage devices, verify that the device corresponds 4. In the list of storage devices, verify that the device corresponds
to the device that you want to reset, its brand, its size, etc. to the USB stick that you want to reset, its brand, its size, etc.
5. To reset the device: 5. To reset the USB stick:
a. If there is an <span class="guilabel">Erase</span> tab a. If there is an <span class="guilabel">Erase</span> tab
in the right pane, click on it and then click on the <span class="button"> in the right pane, click on it and then click on the <span class="button">
......
...@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ If at some point you are not sure about the disk number, stop proceeding. ...@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ If at some point you are not sure about the disk number, stop proceeding.
4. Plug the USB stick that you want to reset. Run the <span 4. Plug the USB stick that you want to reset. Run the <span
class="command">list disk</span> command again. class="command">list disk</span> command again.
A new disk, which corresponds to that device, appears in the list. A new disk, which corresponds to that USB stick, appears in the list.
For example: For example:
...@@ -57,23 +57,23 @@ If at some point you are not sure about the disk number, stop proceeding. ...@@ -57,23 +57,23 @@ If at some point you are not sure about the disk number, stop proceeding.
Disk 0 Online 80 GB 0 B Disk 0 Online 80 GB 0 B
Disk 1 Online 4 GB 0 B Disk 1 Online 4 GB 0 B
Make sure that its size corresponds to the size of the device that you want to Make sure that its size corresponds to the size of the USB stick that you want to
reset. Note down the disk number assigned by <span reset. Note down the disk number assigned by <span
class="application">Diskpart</span> to the device. class="application">Diskpart</span> to the USB stick.
5. To select the device, execute the following command: <span 5. To select the USB stick, execute the following command: <span
class="command">select disk=<span class="replaceable">number</span></span>. class="command">select disk=<span class="replaceable">number</span></span>.
Replace <span class="replaceable">number</span> by the disk number of the Replace <span class="replaceable">number</span> by the disk number of the
device that you want to reset. USB stick that you want to reset.
6. Execute the <span class="command">clean</span> command to delete the 6. Execute the <span class="command">clean</span> command to delete the
partition table from the device. partition table from the USB stick.
7. Execute the <span class="command">convert mbr</span> command to 7. Execute the <span class="command">convert mbr</span> command to
create a new partition table on the device. create a new partition table on the USB stick.
8. Execute the <span class="command">create partition primary</span> 8. Execute the <span class="command">create partition primary</span>
command to create a new primary partition on the device. command to create a new primary partition on the USB stick.
Troubleshooting Troubleshooting
=============== ===============
......
...@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ There are several ways of shutting down Tails: ...@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ There are several ways of shutting down Tails:
- By pressing the power button of the computer. - By pressing the power button of the computer.
- By removing physically the device Tails is running from. - By removing physically the USB stick or DVD Tails is running from.
<div class="caution"> <div class="caution">
......
...@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ as soon as possible. ...@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ as soon as possible.
Both techniques only work if the upgraded USB stick, was Both techniques only work if the upgraded USB stick, was
installed using <span class="application">Tails Installer</span>. **The installed using <span class="application">Tails Installer</span>. **The
persistent storage on the device will be preserved.** persistent storage on the USB stick will be preserved.**
<div class="note"> <div class="note">
...@@ -33,12 +33,12 @@ Automatic upgrade using <span class="application">Tails Upgrader</span> ...@@ -33,12 +33,12 @@ Automatic upgrade using <span class="application">Tails Upgrader</span>
After starting Tails and connecting to Tor, <span class="application">Tails After starting Tails and connecting to Tor, <span class="application">Tails
Upgrader</span> automatically checks if upgrades are available and then Upgrader</span> automatically checks if upgrades are available and then
proposes you to upgrade your device. The upgrades are checked for and downloaded proposes you to upgrade your USB stick. The upgrades are checked for and downloaded
through Tor. through Tor.
The advantages of this technique are the following: The advantages of this technique are the following:
- You only need a single Tails device. The upgrade is done on the fly from a - You only need a single Tails USB stick. The upgrade is done on the fly from a
running Tails. After upgrading, you can restart and use the new version. running Tails. After upgrading, you can restart and use the new version.
- The upgrade is much smaller to download than a full ISO image. - The upgrade is much smaller to download than a full ISO image.
- The upgrade mechanism includes cryptographic verification of the upgrade. - The upgrade mechanism includes cryptographic verification of the upgrade.
...@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@ Requirements: ...@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@ Requirements:
- An Internet connection. - An Internet connection.
After connecting to Tor, if an upgrade is available, a dialog box appears and After connecting to Tor, if an upgrade is available, a dialog box appears and
proposes you to upgrade your device. proposes you to upgrade your USB stick.
[[!img upgrader.png link=no]] [[!img upgrader.png link=no]]
...@@ -139,10 +139,10 @@ For example, when: ...@@ -139,10 +139,10 @@ For example, when:
- No automatic upgrade is available from our website for this version. - No automatic upgrade is available from our website for this version.
- The automatic upgrade is impossible for technical reasons (not enough - The automatic upgrade is impossible for technical reasons (not enough
memory, not enough free space on the device, etc.). memory, not enough free space on the USB stick, etc.).
- You want to upgrade from another Tails device which already has a newer - You want to upgrade from another Tails USB stick which already has a newer
version installed, for example when working offline. version installed, for example when working offline.
- The automatic upgrade failed and you need to repair a Tails device. - The automatic upgrade failed and you need to repair a Tails USB stick.
In this case, <span class="application">Tails Installer</span> allows you to In this case, <span class="application">Tails Installer</span> allows you to
manually upgrade a USB stick to a newer version of Tails. manually upgrade a USB stick to a newer version of Tails.
......
<div class="next"> <div class="next">
To learn how to save your working documents encrypted in your Tails device, read To learn how to save your working documents encrypted in your Tails USB stick, read
our documentation on [[persistence|first_steps/persistence]]. our documentation on [[persistence|first_steps/persistence]].
</div> </div>
...@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ The upgrade could not be installed. ...@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ The upgrade could not be installed.
<div class="caution"> <div class="caution">
Your Tails device needs to be repaired and might be unable to restart. Your Tails USB stick needs to be repaired and might be unable to restart.
</div> </div>
...@@ -24,8 +24,8 @@ report: ...@@ -24,8 +24,8 @@ report:
free -m free -m
</pre> </pre>
2. To repair your Tails device, [[manually upgrade|first_steps/upgrade#manual]] 2. To repair your Tails USB stick, [[manually upgrade|first_steps/upgrade#manual]]
it using Tails Installer from another Tails device. it using Tails Installer from another Tails USB stick.
If the manual upgrade fails as well, please [[report another If the manual upgrade fails as well, please [[report another
error|first_steps/bug_reporting]]. error|first_steps/bug_reporting]].
...@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ Can I install Tails with UNetbootin, YUMI, Rufus or my other favorite tool? ...@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ Can I install Tails with UNetbootin, YUMI, Rufus or my other favorite tool?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
No. Those installation methods are unsupported. They might not work at No. Those installation methods are unsupported. They might not work at
all, or worse: they might seem to work, but produce a Tails device all, or worse: they might seem to work, but produce a USB stick
that does *not* behave like Tails should. Follow the that does *not* behave like Tails should. Follow the
[[download and installation documentation|install]] instead. [[download and installation documentation|install]] instead.
...@@ -147,8 +147,8 @@ you might break things. Upgrading when you get a notification from ...@@ -147,8 +147,8 @@ you might break things. Upgrading when you get a notification from
<a id="preinstalled"></a> <a id="preinstalled"></a>
Can I buy a preinstalled Tails device? Can I buy a preinstalled Tails USB stick or DVD?
-------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------
No, we don't sell preinstalled Tails devices. No, we don't sell preinstalled Tails devices.
...@@ -157,12 +157,12 @@ Selling preinstalled devices would in fact be a pretty bad idea: ...@@ -157,12 +157,12 @@ Selling preinstalled devices would in fact be a pretty bad idea:
* If burned on a DVD, then this DVD would be outdated on the next * If burned on a DVD, then this DVD would be outdated on the next
release. This means after 6 weeks at most. release. This means after 6 weeks at most.
* If installed onto a USB stick, then it would be impossible to verify * If installed onto a USB stick, then it would be impossible to verify
that the Tails on the USB stick is genuine. Trusting that a Tails device that the Tails on the USB stick is genuine. Trusting that a Tails USB stick
is genuine should be based either on cryptographic verification or is genuine should be based either on cryptographic verification or
on personal trust (if you know someone you trust who can clone a Tails device for you). But on personal trust (if you know someone you trust who can clone a Tails USB stick for you). But
once Tails is installed on a USB stick it is not possible to use our once Tails is installed on a USB stick it is not possible to use our
cryptographic verification techniques anymore. Being able to trust cryptographic verification techniques anymore. Being able to trust
your Tails device is something that we really care about. your Tails USB stick is something that we really care about.
<a id="browser"></a> <a id="browser"></a>
...@@ -606,10 +606,10 @@ See our [[warning page|doc/about/warning]] for more details. ...@@ -606,10 +606,10 @@ See our [[warning page|doc/about/warning]] for more details.
<a id="integrity"></a> <a id="integrity"></a>
Can I verify the integrity of a Tails device? Can I verify the integrity of a Tails USB stick or DVD?
--------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------
It is not possible to verify the integrity of a Tails device when running Tails It is not possible to verify the integrity of a Tails device, USB stick or DVD, when running Tails
from this same device. This would be like asking to someone whether she is a from this same device. This would be like asking to someone whether she is a
liar; the answer of a true liar would always be "no". liar; the answer of a true liar would always be "no".
...@@ -618,10 +618,10 @@ liar; the answer of a true liar would always be "no". ...@@ -618,10 +618,10 @@ liar; the answer of a true liar would always be "no".
using OpenPGP|install/download/openpgp]] using OpenPGP|install/download/openpgp]]
against the DVD itself. against the DVD itself.
- There is no documented method of verifying the integrity of a Tails device - There is no documented method of verifying the integrity of a Tails USB stick
installed using <span class="application">Tails installed using <span class="application">Tails
Installer</span>. However, if you have another trusted Tails device, Installer</span>. However, if you have another trusted Tails USB stick,
you can [[clone it onto the untrusted device|doc/first_steps/upgrade]] to you can [[clone it onto the untrusted USB stick|doc/first_steps/upgrade]] to
reset it to a trusted state. reset it to a trusted state.
<a id="reuse_memory_wipe"></a> <a id="reuse_memory_wipe"></a>
......
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