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<div class="trophy windows linux mac-usb expert">

<div class="state-image">[[!img install/inc/infography/tails-usb.png link="no" alt="Tails USB stick"]]</div>

<p>Congratulations, you have installed Tails on your USB stick!</p>

<p>You will now restart your computer on this USB stick.
<span class="windows linux expert">It can be a bit complicated, so good luck!</span>
<span class="mac-usb">But it might not work on your Mac model, so good luck!</span>


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<h1 id="back">Open these instructions on another device</h1>

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<div class="step-image">[[!img install/inc/infography/switch-context.png link="no" alt=""]]</div>
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In the next step, you will shut down the computer. To be able to follow
the rest of the instructions afterwards, we recommend you either:

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   [[!img install/inc/qrcodes/tails_boum_org_install_clone.png class="install-clone qrcode" link="no" alt=""]]
   [[!img install/inc/qrcodes/tails_boum_org_install_win_usb.png class="windows qrcode" link="no" alt=""]]
   [[!img install/inc/qrcodes/tails_boum_org_install_mac_usb.png class="mac-usb qrcode" link="no" alt=""]]
   [[!img install/inc/qrcodes/tails_boum_org_install_mac_clone.png class="mac-clone qrcode" link="no" alt=""]]
   [[!img install/inc/qrcodes/tails_boum_org_install_expert_usb.png class="expert qrcode" link="no" alt=""]]
   [[!img install/inc/qrcodes/tails_boum_org_install_linux_usb.png class="linux qrcode" link="no" alt=""]]
   [[!img install/inc/qrcodes/tails_boum_org_upgrade_clone.png class="upgrade-clone qrcode" link="no" alt=""]]
   [[!img install/inc/qrcodes/tails_boum_org_upgrade_tails.png class="upgrade-tails qrcode" link="no" alt=""]]
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   - Open this page on your smartphone, tablet, or another computer (recommended).

   - Print the rest of the instructions on paper.

   - Take note of the URL of this page to be able to come back later:

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     <span class="install-clone">``</span>
     <span class="windows">``</span>
     <span class="mac-usb">``</span>
     <span class="mac-clone">``</span>
     <span class="expert">``</span>
     <span class="linux">``</span>
     <span class="upgrade-clone">``</span>
     <span class="upgrade-tails">``</span>

<h1 id="start-intermediary" class="upgrade-tails">Restart on the intermediary Tails</h1>
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<h1 id="start-other" class="clone">Restart on the other Tails</h1>
<h1 id="start-tails" class="windows linux mac-usb expert">Restart on Tails</h1>

<div class="step-image">
[[!img install/inc/infography/plug-other-tails.png link="no" class="clone" alt="USB stick plugged on the left"]]
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[[!img install/inc/infography/restart-on-tails.png link="no" class="windows linux mac-usb" alt="Computer restarted on USB stick"]]
[[!img install/inc/infography/restart-on-other-tails.png link="no" class="clone" alt="Computer restarted on USB stick on the left"]]
[[!img install/inc/infography/restart-on-upgrade-usb.png link="no" class="upgrade-tails" alt="USB stick unplugged on the right and computer restarted on USB stick on the left"]]

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<div class="note clone">

<p>The following instructions assume that the other Tails that you are
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<span class="install-clone windows linux mac">installing</span>
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<span class="upgrade">upgrading</span>
from is on a USB stick. You can also
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<span class="install-clone windows linux mac">install</span>
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<span class="upgrade">upgrade</span>
from a Tails DVD in a similar way.</p>
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1. <p>
     <span class="usb">Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.</span>
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   <p class="clone upgrade-tails">Shut down the computer.</p>
   <p class="clone">Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to
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   <span class="install-clone windows linux mac">install</span>
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   <span class="upgrade">upgrade</span>
   <p class="upgrade-tails">Unplug your Tails USB stick while leaving the intermediary USB stick plugged in.</p>
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1. Switch on the computer.

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   <div class="mac-usb mac-clone">
   [[!inline pages="install/inc/steps/mac_startup_disks.inline" raw="yes" sort="age"]]
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1. If the computer starts on Tails, the <span class="application">Boot Loader Menu</span>
   appears and Tails starts automatically after 4 seconds.</p>

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   <div class="note install-clone expert windows linux">
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   <p>Most computers do not start on Tails by default. If it does you
   are lucky. Otherwise, if the computer starts on
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   <span class="expert">Debian, Ubuntu, or Linux Mint</span>
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   <span class="windows">Windows,</span>
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   <span class="linux">Linux,</span>
   <span class="install-clone">Windows or Linux,</span>
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   refer to  [[!toggle id="not_at_all" text="the troubleshooting section
   about Tails not starting at all"]].</p>
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   [[!toggleable id="not_at_all" text="""
   <span class="hide">[[!toggle id="not_at_all" text=""]]</span>

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   Troubleshooting: Tails does not start at all

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   The following section applies if the <span class="application">Boot Loader Menu</span>
   does not appear when starting on a USB stick.

   It is quite common for computers not to start automatically on a
   USB stick with Tails installed. Here are some troubleshooting techniques. You should try them
   one after the other.

   ### Getting to the boot menu

   On most computers, you can press a *boot menu key* to display a list of
   possible devices to start from. The following instructions explain how
   to display the boot menu and start on the USB stick. The following
   screenshot is an example of such boot menu:

   [[!img install/inc/screenshots/bios_boot_menu.png link="no" alt=""]]

   1. Shut down the computer.

   1. Make sure that the first USB stick is plugged in the computer.

   1. Identify the potential boot menu keys for the computer depending on
   the computer manufacturer in the following list:

        <tr><td>Acer</td><td>Esc, F12, F9</td></tr>
        <tr><td>Asus</td><td>Esc, F8</td></tr>
        <tr><td>Fujitsu</td><td>F12, Esc</td></tr>
        <tr><td>HP</td><td>Esc, F9</td></tr>
        <tr><td>Lenovo</td><td>F12, Novo, F8, F10</td></tr>
        <tr><td>Samsung</td><td>Esc, F12, F2</td></tr>
        <tr><td>Sony</td><td>F11, Esc, F10</td></tr>
        <tr><td>others&hellip;</td><td>F12, Esc</td></tr>

   1. Switch on the computer.

      Immediately press several times the first potential boot menu key identified in step 3.

      a. If a boot menu with a list of devices appears, select your USB stick
         and press <span class="keycap">Enter</span>.

      a. If the computer starts on another operating system, then:

         1. Shut down the computer.

         1. Press-and-hold the potential boot menu key identified in step 3.

         1. Switch on the computer again while holding the potential boot menu key pressed.

            a. If a boot menu with a list of devices appears, select your USB stick
               and press <span class="keycap">Enter</span>.

            a. If the computer starts on another operating system or returns an
               error message, then shut down the computer again and repeat step
               4 for all the potential boot menu keys identified in step 3.

   If none of the potential boot menu keys identified in step 3 work or if
   the USB stick does not appear in the list, then try the second
   troubleshooting technique described below.

   ### Check our list of known issues

   Similar problems might have been reported already for your model of computer
   in our [[list of known issues|support/known_issues]].

   ### Edit the BIOS settings

   You might need to edit the BIOS settings of the computer.

   <div class="tip">
   <p>Search for the user manual of the computer on the website of its
   manufacturer to learn how to edit the BIOS settings:

   In the BIOS settings, try to apply the following changes one by one and
   restart the computer after each change. Some changes might not
   apply to certain computer models.

   <div class="caution">
   <p>Take note of the changes that you apply to the BIOS settings, to be
   able to revert them if they prevent the computer to start on its usual
   operating system.</p>

   1. Edit the **Boot Order**. Depending on the computer model you might
   see an entry for **removable devices** or **USB media**. Move this entry
   to the top of the list to force the computer to try to start from
   the first USB stick before starting from the internal hard disk.

   1. Disable **Fast boot**.

   1. If the computer is configured to start with **legacy BIOS**, try to
   configure it to start with **UEFI**. Else, if the computer is configured
   to start with **UEFI**, try to configure it to start with **legacy
   BIOS**. To do so, try any of the following options if available:

      - Enable **Legacy mode**
      - Disable **Secure boot**
        (see the [Microsoft documentation](
      - Enable **CSM boot**
      - Disable **UEFI**

   1. Try to upgrade the BIOS to the latest version provided by the manufacturer.

   ### Report the problem to our support team

   <div class="bug">
   <p>If none of these options work, we are sorry but you might not be
   able to use Tails on this computer.</p>

   Please, [[send an email to our support team|support/talk]], including
   the following information:

   1. Which version of Tails are you trying to start?

   1. How did you verify the ISO image?

   1. Which is the brand and model of the computer?

   1. What exactly happens when trying to start? Report the complete error
      message that appears on the screen, if any.

   1. Are you trying to start Tails on a USB stick or a DVD?

   1. If you are trying to start on a USB stick, which program did you
      use to install it:

      - <span class="application">Etcher</span>,
      - <span class="application">GNOME Disks</span>,
      - <span class="application">Tails Installer</span>, or
      - <span class="command">dd</span> on the command line?

      Note that these are the only supported installation methods.

   1. Have you been able to start Tails successfully on this computer
      before, from another USB stick or DVD, or with another version of Tails?
      If so, which ones?

   1. Does the same USB stick or DVD start successfully on other computers?
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     [[!img install/inc/screenshots/tails_boot_menu.png link="no" alt="Black screen with Tails artwork. Boot Loader Menu with two options 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'."]]

   <div class="bug mac-usb mac-clone">
   <p>If your computer fails to start on the USB stick, then it might
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   currently be impossible to start Tails on your Mac model.</p>
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1. After 30&ndash;60 seconds, another screen called <span class="application">Tails Greeter</span> appears.
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   <div class="note">
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   <p>If the computer display the error message
   <span class="guilabel">Error starting GDM with your graphics
   card</span>, refer to our [[list of known issues with graphics

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   <p>If the computer stops responding or displays other error messages before
   getting to <span class="application">Tails Greeter</span>, refer to
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   [[!toggle id="not_entirely" text="the troubleshooting section about
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   Tails not starting entirely"]].</p>
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   [[!toggleable id="not_entirely" text="""
   <span class="hide">[[!toggle id="not_entirely" text=""]]</span>
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   Tails does not start entirely

   The following section applies if the <span class="application">Boot Loader Menu</span> appears but not
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   <span class="application">Tails Greeter</span> when starting Tails.

   1. Restart the computer on the first USB stick.

   1. In the <span class="application">Boot Loader Menu</span>, choose the
   <span class="guilabel">Troubleshooting Mode</span>
   which might work better on some computers.

   1. If the <span class="guilabel">Troubleshooting Mode</span> does not work
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   better, restart the computer again on the first USB stick.

   1. In the <span class="application">Boot Loader Menu</span>, press
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   <span class="keycap">TAB</span>. A command line with a list
   of boot options appears at the bottom of the screen.

      [[!img doc/first_steps/startup_options/boot-menu-with-options.png link="no" alt="Black screen with Tails artwork and list of boot options"]]
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   1. Press the <span class="keycap">Backspace</span> key several times to
      remove the <span class="code">quiet</span> option from the command line.

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   1. If Tails previously failed to start and displayed the <span
      class="code">Probing EDD (edd=off to disable)...</span> error,
      then type `edd=off` to add this option to the command line.

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   1. Type `debug nosplash` to add these options to the command line.

   1. To start Tails, press <span class="keycap">Enter</span>.

   1. Hopefully, error messages now appear when starting Tails. You can
      [[send them to our support team by email|support/talk]], for example by taking a
      picture of the last screen and error messages.

   1. If the error message is <span class="code">/bin/sh: can't access tty; job control
      turned off</span> followed by <span class="code">(initramfs)</span>, then try removing the
      <span class="code">live-media=removable</span> option from the boot command line.

      If removing <span class="code">live-media=removable</span> allows you to start Tails, please
      report the problem to our [[support team|support/talk]].
      This contributes to improving the [[list
      of problematic USB sticks|support/known_issues#problematic-usb-sticks]].
      Then try installing Tails on another USB stick.

   <div class="caution">
   <p>Removing the <span class="code">live-media=removable</span> option
   might be dangerous. If an adversary had access to the computer and
   installed a malicious Tails on an internal hard disk, the computer
   might start on the malicious Tails instead of on the USB stick.</p>
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   [[!img doc/first_steps/startup_options/tails-greeter-welcome-to-tails.png link="no" alt="Tails Greeter: 'Welcome to Tails!'"]]

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1. In <span class="application">Tails Greeter</span>, select your language and
keyboard layout in the <span class="guilabel">Language & Region</span> section.
Click <span class="button">Start Tails</span>.

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1. After 15&ndash;30 seconds, the Tails desktop appears.

   [[!img install/inc/screenshots/desktop.png link="no" alt="Tails desktop"]]